产品运营如何搭建内容生态闭环

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你是不是有过这样的经历,刚刚运营1个产品用户群,大家一开始还聊的好好地,会给产品贡献很多内容和反馈,在这个过程中,虽然你很心累,但是作为运营人员,你的成就感十足。

等群里人变多了,你开始发现大家都不怎么说话了,对产品的内容贡献度甚至变低了,不管你怎么运营,情况就像脱轨的火车,每况日下,渐渐丧失斗志。

最可怕的是,你可能又会开一个新群,重复上面的初级运营规律……

这一切都因为:你没有打造出产品生态,而这也是运营的第二个核心价值。

首先,我们要明白什么是打造产品生态,我们以依托于用户生产内容的产品为例。

那就是:搭建用户贡献+消费内容的生态闭环,这条定义对大部分产品都可以沿用。

继续剖析下去,你会发现这条定义的底层逻辑是:因用户消费内容带来的互动行为,是对内容生产最有效的激励。

说完这些,你可能有些疑问,对于一个运营新人,如果才能把这条定义落地在实际的工作当中呢?接下来,我们就将通过几个经典的运营案例,来教大家的运营核心价值:打造产品生态闭环的应用方式。

案例1:百度贴吧-找到关键人

对于有经验的运营来说,大部分的运营事项,找到Key boy,可以帮助自己解决大部分的问题。打造产品生态也不例外,百度贴吧就将这个规律摸得很透,他们在贴吧的运营上就将“吧主”作为了核心运营对象。

所有的运营工作都符合28定律:20%的群体,生产了80%的价值,百度贴吧更是将他们应用的淋漓尽致。

首先他们将所有的贴吧按28比例分为了核心贴吧和普通贴吧,普通贴吧不消耗官方运营人员太多精力,由吧主自行运营,如同放羊一般,只是做一些简单的维护。

核心贴吧是他们重点运营的对象,这其中又分为了3个类型的贴吧,分别是:舆论吧、可塑吧、超级吧。

  • 舆论吧:主要事实热点类的贴吧,比如某些大型的国际会议等,用作建立和推广之用;

  • 可塑吧:专门对一些具有潜力的贴吧作为维护,将来可以扶持为超级吧的候选对象;

  • 超级吧:像帝吧等,是有专人维护和监控的,特定活动和吧主关系都需要维护,可以推进整个产品迭代的效果。

每个人的精力都是有限的,尤其是对于社群运营,如果阳光普照式的对待,往往运营极限在100~150人左右,如果运营找到其中的关键人,重点维护,并建立相应的用户管理体系,就能起到四两拨千斤的效果,我们有机会开一篇专题来给大家详论一下。

案例2:猫眼电影-金字塔分层

猫眼电影在用的金字塔分层理论的应用上,算国内最好的几家了。

对于这样偏工具类的产品来说,只有用户生产的内容,才可以形成产品壁垒,而猫眼电影采用了5层对用户进行划分。

产品运营:如何搭建内容生态闭环?


分别是:名人、kol、达人、活跃用户、普通用户,我们来看看他们的定义。

  • 名人:主要群体是导演、编剧、明星——可以吸引关注和提供背书;

  • Kol:主要群体是行业内有影响力的PGC生产者——提升自己的品牌专业度;

  • 达人:能够产生优质内容,但没有专业背景的UGC生产者——他们是内容贡献的主题;

  • 活跃用户:活跃但不上次内容,主要是内容消费者,是生产者的基础;

  • 普通用户:不生产也不消费的用户。

对于不同分层的用户,他们的产品述求也是不一样的,运营可以通过分层的结果,剖析用户的产品需求,然后具有针对性的进行干预和引导,从而打造整个产品的生态闭环。

我们这里举2个应用例子:

  1. 针对“达人”调查后发现,他们是在意平台对自己的认可。所以官方勋章和加V这样的产品方案就可以提升他们对平台的持续贡献;

  2. 电影的名人都有宣传电影的需要,所以1v1专人邀请他们撰写评论等行为,容易水到渠成。

不同产品的用户可以有不同的分法,主要是找到产品用户的不同需求点,然后针对性的干预运营,引导用户产生产品价值。

案例3:社区类产品实战案例

这是我自己从0至1亲身经历的一个社区类产品,从2016年开始,历时1年多。初期整个业务团队规模就超120多人,成员也是来自网易、阿里、YY等四面八方,可以说是非常豪华的孵化项目,这也是我加入其中的原因。

当时我主要负责用户运营端,几个小伙伴一起搭建整个社区调性和闭环。虽然大家都是从不同项目组陆陆续续参与到这个业务当中,但是我理解这个团队的业务逻辑和工作方式,都是极其成熟的。

在这样一个环境中,最讲究的就是工作逻辑,纯粹的埋头苦干是容易被活水的(优化掉)。

所以经过多方商讨后,我们小组成员决定通过28法则和金字塔分层策略,来盘活整个社区产品,整条业务线的实战简述如下:

  1. 导出全平台最优质1%的内容生产者

  • 判定标准主要参考几个维度:内容数量、内容长度、内容质量、内容互动效果。

  • 这里除了一些数值的固定筛选之外,在内容质量的判断,需要依据整个产品的定调来决定;比如我们对内容的调性要求是,可以帮助用户找到真真好玩的游戏,那么我们在人工筛选用户内容侧,就朝这个方向会有所倾斜。

  1. 通过各种手段联系和聚集他们

这里就比较考验运营功底了,因为在实际的执行过程中,我们发现我们的这批核心用户,他们的身份标签各式各样。

有知名网站编辑、有业内Kol、贴吧吧主、纯粹爱写文字的小学生等等,对于这样各式各样的人群,我们的4套预选方案基本可以做到全覆盖。

正式的邮件+证书+奖杯:

这些是给予那些无法通过物质和普通的联系可以聚荣起来的用户,主要是一些知名人物,他们的述求很简单,需要被官方尊重和认可,需要十足的仪式感,所以这些提供仪式的物资需要特别定制。

产品内的身份标识:

这些是给予那些具有业内知名度,并且苛求增加更多行业背书的用户,一个官方产品的身份标识,就急剧诱惑力。

物质奖励:

这些主要是没有那么强烈的社会需求,并且没有持续内容生产意愿的用户,一点点温暖,就足以关怀到,并且这里的物质最好是兑换成官方周边,这样用户接受度更高。

官方联系:

这个包括电话/QQ/app推送都可以,有些用户只要有官方小姐姐和他说话,都乐开了花。主要是是一些低龄和对产品忠诚度的较高的用户。

  1. 用户分层后差异化激励

这里我主要讲非1v1的用户群,他们是我们将面对的主要用户群,主要通过3招搞定用户,激励他们持续生产内容。

一套制度:

是一套用户行为准则,包括群体定位,名称,价值,人员准入及淘汰标准,如何在组织内晋升,如果获得相应的头衔等等。

当一套群体制度跑通后,官方运营人员只需要对接Q群内的主要核心骨干即可,并且可以不断复制这样的组织架构。在实际落地执行后,我们当时做到可以顺畅允许规模为5000人的优质用户群体

一个周期:

这个整个用户群体内认知周期的迭代,也是盘活产品内容输出力的迭代方式。

只有当整个用户群有周期的概念,那么这个用户群才具有生命力,用户才会重视你的运营方式,产生一种习惯;

比如你发奖,做发奖品,发布活动结算日等,都选在这个节点,用户自然会增强其感知,当1个Q群的激励兑现的在周一,那么多个Q群就可以交替这个兑现周期,实现内容产出的正向循环;

一个活动:

无论是精神向的活动,还是物质向的活动,每一个1对多的群体内,一定要在周期内有1个活动主题,只有这样群体才有凝聚力,活动形式最好是可以换皮复制的。我们当时采用的活动就和产品价值相结合,底层逻辑就是:用户生产内容,我们给予奖励,只是每次的形式不一而已。

  1. 摆脱人对组织的影响

这是最难也是最重要的一个环境,通过人去维系社群,决定没有通过制度去维系社群的效果好。

举一个最简单的例子,如果运营人员离职,很有可能使得整个盘活的运营成果崩盘,并且人的不确定性无法在这样重要的事项里,给予团队确定性的预期。

基于此,我们对社群做了组织架构的优化,以层级的关系链接彼此,每一个Q群群主影响50~100人,而每10个群主对接1个高级用户,每个官方运营对接的最后仅剩几个可数的高级用户。

当然,前提是你初期的运营制度模式是符合这样的制度框架,稍有偏差,最后只能让你的运营模式受到人员上限的瓶颈,无法开展。

概述全文要点:

(1)运营核心价值:搭建内容生态闭环;

(2)2套理论助力:28定律和金字塔理论。

 


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