深扒文案新手从入门到进阶技巧

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做文案,是一项独具挑战而又有趣的体验。它时刻提醒着你关注身边的人和事,紧跟网络热潮,始终不会与社会脱节;它经常需要你开动脑筋,和品牌、产品、相关人员进行思想的碰撞,给文字赋予更深层的涵义……

在这里,小编总结了一点小小的经验,希望能给刚刚步入文案行列的新手们,以及将来想从事文案工作的朋友带来些许的帮助。

首先,来给“文案”下个定义。

一、文案到底是什么

我们常常都在说“写文案”,那么,文案究竟是什么?

传统的定义里面,文案主要指:公文书信档案,或者草拟文牍、掌管档案的人;而通过现代延伸之后,文案有了更商业化的解释,特指:借以实现销售力的文字和图案

它由标题、副标题、广告正文、广告口号、照片/图片、图片说明等要素组成。文案既可以很单一(只有一句话或者一张图片),也可以很复杂(文字、符号、图片等多元素拼接在一起 )。但无论文案的内容和形式如何变换,它始终都要为产品服务,这是我们写文案的出发点和落脚点。

说到文案写作,约瑟夫·休格曼在他《文案训练手册》一书中作了精彩的阐述:

它是一段精神旅程。成功的文案写作,会综合反映出你全部的经历、你的专业知识、你对这些信息进行精神加工并以卖出产品或服务为目的将它们形成文字的能力。

那么,在成为一名合格的文案之前,我们应该如何获取专业知识,提高专业能力呢?

二、文案入门的自我提升和修炼

文案创作并不是一蹴而就的事情,灵感也不会说有就有,所谓的创意,可能出自你个人的经历、工作总结、某本书、某部电影、某个广告……

换句话说,你想在文案的道路上走的顺一点,需要有所积累,不断学习,提升自己的知识和能力。

1. 不断丰富自己的人生阅历

文案创作需要素材,素材往往来源于生活。

尽管你无法像大卫·奥格威那样,在成为广告人之前,当过厨师、推销员、慈善工作人员、电影研究助手、安全协调署助手、农民……但你必须要有认真生活的觉悟,对生活、工作充满热情和好奇心,这很重要。

  • 认真体会每一天的生活,能储存充足的生活常识;丰富自己的兴趣爱好(音乐、电影、运动、阅读、旅游、摄影、游戏等),能开拓视野积累各方面的知识。

  • 尝试拓宽自己的社交圈,和不同的人(特别是有经验的前辈)进行交流,能学习他们说话、处事、思考的方式;关注时事热点,能把握好潮流的走向;不畏惧失败敢于尝试,能获得宝贵的经验……

这些看似不起眼的小事,如果你都能一一做好,那么,你会发现,脑袋里随时可调用的材料越来越多了。

2. 掌握大量的专业性知识

有了日常的知识,你还需具备与技巧、方法论相关的专业知识:经过观察、假设、调研之后形成的系统理论,前人的经验总结。它涉及到文案、广告、营销、推广、消费者行为、心理学、调研、数据统计等方方面面。

充足的专业知识,能够让你吃透文案的本质,了解文案与其他领域的有机关联,使文案创作更加高效,也更加有效。

有哪些途径可以快速获取到这些知识呢?

  • 阅读专业书籍。不仅仅指《一个广告人的自白》、《文案训练手册》这样的文案/广告类读物,还应该包括心理、产品、设计等书籍;而在阅读过程中,做读书笔记将会有助于你的理解和记忆。

  • 浏览垂直性网站。在网站上面,你可以看到干货文章、营销案例、文案海报合集、热点事件分析等内容,获取到或新鲜、或专业的文案知识。

  • 关注相关公众号。一类是纯干货性质的公众号;另一类是善于写广告软文的公众号;还有就是些风格、选题很独特个性的公众号。

  • 免费或者付费课程。就目前来说,文案相关的线上课程也不少,要有选择性地挑选适合自己的去学习。缺哪方面的知识或能力,就去提升哪方面,千万别贪多,最好可以边学习边实践。

丰富的生活阅历以及理论都是文案人要掌握的宽泛性知识,如果想要成为一名好文案,你还需要一些特殊知识。

3. 深入了解你的产品、服务以及消费者

不管是为甲方还是自己公司的产品/服务写文案,都必须先了解你的写作对象。

你只有研究透产品或服务的本质,才能提炼出核心的卖点,不管是物理上的还是情感上的。这样创作出来的文案才具有说服力,传递给消费者的信息才更加有效。

你可以通过查找并阅读已有的资料去了解产品,也可以通过与市面上同类产品进行比较,从而得出自己产品的优劣点。最后,你还可以找技术人员或工程师了解产品的生产制造过程,找到产品在物理上以及技术上的某些特性。把这些理顺之后,别忘了你的目标用户群同样重要。

了解你的消费者必须要做好消费者调研,搜集消费者的信息,形成用户画像。充分了解他们的群体属性、喜好、购买力、需求以及对产品的印象,才能让创作出来的文案确实贴合消费者的需求点、引发内心的共鸣。

而这个过程中,当你为那些你也会购买或者需要的产品及服务写文案时,别忘了,你自己就是当你了解你一个典型消费者。你自己的喜好、对这些产品的关注点以及对服务的期待,都是可以作为目标消费群的属性进行分析研究的。

总之,当你了解你的产品或服务,了解你的消费者,你用文案来传达思想的能力也会变得与众不同。

那么,我们具体可以通过哪些书籍、网站和公众号学习知识呢?

三、文案入门必备的工具推荐

上文中我们提到过获取专业知识的方法,现在就具体推荐一些我个人认为还不错的书籍、网站、公众号给大家,都是跟文案息息相关的。

1. 文案必备书籍篇

1)【文案与写作类】书籍

《文案训练手册》(约瑟夫·休格曼)

关键词:知识、实践、情感、心理诱因、文案要素

推荐指数:★★★★★

《文案创作完全手册》(罗伯特·布莱)

关键词:营销力、广告文案、标题、市场研究

推荐指数:★★★★★

《超文案》(朱冰)

关键词:创意、文案、微时代、案例精选

推荐指数:★★★★

《文案发烧》(路克·苏立文)

关键词:广告、创意、广告人

推荐指数:★★★★

《小丰现代汉语广告语法辞典》(丰信东)

关键词:汉语、语法、用词、用语

推荐指数:★★★★

2)【广告与创意类】书籍

《一个广告人的自白》(大卫·奥格威)

关键词:经典、大师;公司、客户、广告、文案

推荐指数:★★★★★

《广告设计创意有道》(王欣东)

关键词:创意、艺术、案例丰富

推荐指数:★★★★★

《蔚蓝诡计》(乔治・路易斯)

关键词:大创意、定位、客户、名人、政治

推荐指数:★★★★

《超级符号就是超级创意》(华杉/华楠)

关键词:品牌、创意、超级符号、超级话语

推荐指数:★★★★

3)【行为与心理类】书籍

《消费者行为学》(符国群)

关键词:消费者行为、购买、决策、心理、动机

推荐指数:★★★★★

《影响力》(罗伯特•B•西奥迪尼)

关键词:社会心理学、互惠、喜好、权威、稀缺

推荐指数:★★★★

《乌合之众》(古斯塔夫·勒庞)

关键词:大众心理学、群体、心理、意见、信念

推荐指数:★★★★

2. 文案必备网站篇

1)【广告文案综合性】网站

数英网:http://www.digitaling.com/

梅花网:http://www.meihua.info/c

广告门:http://www.adquan.com/

TOPYS:http://www.topys.cn/

中国广告网:http://www.cnad.com/

网络广告人社区:http://iwebad.com/

2)【创意与设计类】网站

UI中国灵感库:http://idea.ui.cn/

设计癖:http://www.shejipi.com/

视觉ME设计社区:http://shijue.me/

Oritive创意设计:http://www.oritive.com/

Inspiration Grid:http://theinspirationgrid.com/

Dribbble:https://dribbble.com/

welovead:http://www.welovead.com/cn/

AdSoftheWorld:http://adsoftheworld.com/

Framelab Design Direction:http://www.frmlb.de/

Boredpanda阿:http://www.boredpanda.com/

3. 文案必备公众号篇

  • 王左中右(善用创意字讲故事,软文经常神转折)

  • 顾爷(善用绘画讲故事,创作软文)

  • 六神磊磊读金庸(以金庸的作品说故事,创作软文)

  • 天才小熊猫(恶搞、脑洞大开的创意广告)

  • GQ实验室(被称为“脑洞之王”)

  • 新世相(关于形形色色人生的故事)

  • 蝉创意(脑洞大开,自称全中国“最糟糕”的公众号)

当我们有了这些工具,里面大量的信息、知识,如何才能更好地为文案所用呢?你可以把它们整合起来,代替记忆,存放在文档里面,随时取用。

四、组建自己的文案素材库

看似没什么技术含量,甚至有点浪费时间的工作,但其实它很有意义,不管你是文案小白还是老司机。

网上的素材虽然很多,但不够系统,分散在各个角落。当你把搜集到的大量资料进行分门别类,归纳存放到自己的电脑或者手机文档上面时,就有了自己系统的素材库。

(1)把“标题”归为一个文档

下面可以按【类型】再细分出软文标题、长文案标题、平面广告标题等;或者按【风格】细分成“内涵式标题”、“数字式标题”、“对比式标题”、“疑问式标题”……

(2)把“文案”归为一个文档

可以再细分为【经典文案】:“经典短文案”、 “经典长文案”;或者按【行业】来细分:房地产文案、酒类文案、服装行业文案、美妆类文案、珠宝首饰文案等。

还可以按【时间节点】分为:春节借势文案、情人节借势文案、母亲节借势文案、中秋节借势文案……;最后,可以根据【风格】去细分:自黑式文案、对比式文案、谐音式文案、神转折文案……

(3)把“海报”归为一个文档

详细归类可参照上面的“文案”细分。

标题、文案和海报这3大基本素材之外,我们还应该根据实际需要,搜集整理一些对文案创作有帮助的其他资料,比如:歌词古诗词网络用语文案概念解释等等。

前面说的这些素材,我们直接在网上找得到,而还有一类需要你花时间总结整理——读书笔记。

俗话说:“好记性不如烂笔头”。

读一本文案相关的书籍,里面可能会有很多理论,也会有一些好的案例,实用性的方法技巧。把文中的精彩部分整理出来做成笔记,既能帮助理解,又能加深记忆,还方便我们查找。最后,把笔记整合成文档,放进素材库里面。这样,系统完整的文案素材库就诞生了。以后你再看到好的东西,随时可以填充。

没灵感的时候,就去素材库瞧一瞧。

于是,当我们有了理论知识,有了素材,就要开始切切实实地“写”文案了。

五、实践很重要,持续输出自己的文案

平时,我们总会羡慕别人的文案能刷爆朋友圈,能带货几百万上千万,但成功背后究竟有多少辛酸,做过多少次的尝试和努力,恐怕只有创作者能懂。

没有谁天生就很会写,哪怕20世纪那些最离经叛道的广告人,都是经过无数次实践成长起来的。所以,想进成为一名优秀的文案人,在掌握理论知识的同时,别忘了多练习文案的写作

首先,要分清工作写文案自主练习文案的区别。

工作上,写文案有很强的目的性,是要为自己公司或客户产品服务的,通常以“销售结果”、“传播效果”为导向。当你接触到这些文案工作时,不要仅仅将它归为任务,应该把每一次创作当成锻炼的好机会。但工作毕竟没有连续性,也有部分自由职业的文案人,因此,日常中的自主文案创作很有必要。

跟工作不同,自己练习时,没有来自各方的压力,你完全可以放空思绪,尽情发挥:锻炼文笔和培养语感,找到更好的创意角度

  • 从模仿开始练习文案。这是最快速的方法,但要盲目模仿,必须有计划有规律。比如:一段时间选择一种类型的文案进行模仿练习,持续学习该类型文案的创作套路,最后总结出自己的方法论。

  • 借热点写品牌文案。很多人自己写文案的时候,找不到好的选题和切入点。其实,大大小小的网络热点,特别是春节、情人节、中秋节等我们熟悉的节假日,就是最佳的创作素材。比如,可以以某类品牌为例,尝试写各种文案,锻炼我们挖掘品牌卖点的能力。

总之,如果你想提高文案创作的水平,不必考虑太多,开始写就对了。

六、文案创作的几个小技巧

文案创作是有迹可循的,从那些成功的例子中,我们能总结出不少技巧性的东西。适当运用些技巧,会让你在写文案时如虎添翼。

1. 善于利用人性的弱点

不得不承认,人都是有弱点的,它们有些会外现,但更多时候被隐藏在内心深处。

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